Federation architecture refers to the architectural style of Australian homes built around the decades before and after 1900 AD. This site is a backup to Federation-House.wikispaces.com, which closed down in 2018. The new Federation-House.com site links to these blogs, but many old links to the Wikispaces site are unfortunately still present.
Cedric Ballantyne’s Bungalow and Interwar Architecture
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The architect of 232 Kooyong Road was Cedric Heise Ballantyne (1876-1957).
Oakden entered partnership in 1900 with his employee Cedric Ballantyne, and after Oakden’s death in 1917
Ballantyne continued in practice at first by himself, in partnership with the engineer-architect Henry Hare in 1921–6, alone again until 1933, briefly with his associates B. P. Sutton and G. H. Sneddon, then in partnership with Sneddon alone until 1939.
After Oakden retired in 1916 due to failing health, Ballantyne designed a garden suburb in Goulburn with Donald Esplin.
Throughout most of his career, Ballantyne was architect for the Melbourne Metropolitan Fire Brigade Board, a position he inherited from Percy Oakden.
Architect Percy Oakden’s influence
The Craftsman Bungalow
EMPHASIS ON STRUCTURE
Two bungalows by the Melbourne architects P. Oakden and C.H. Ballantyne in 1908 provide the introduction of the twentieth-century bungalow to Australia.
Harry Martin Bungalow, Toorak, Victoria. Oakden and Ballantyne, architects. 1908.
Windarring. (2 Glyndebourne Ave) Double storey interwar villa with attic storey. Divided into units, Heritage Overlay Number HO180.
verandahs with thick pylon supports, was quickly gaining momentum.
Bungalow style became the major suburban mode of c. 1915-26.
Bungalows proliferated in subdivisions of ostensibly older suburbs like Richmond, Brunswick and Northcote, and dominated bayside housing from St Kilda to Portsea.
Houses built by Cedric Ballantyne and partners
39 Hopetoun Road, Toorak (1932)
Architect Cedric Ballantyne submitted plans for a two-storey brick residence for Wilfred Kent Fethers, facing Hopetoun Road in 1932. This house was later numbered 39 Hopetoun Road. Col. Fethers, Manager for Australian Royal Insurance, and distinguished soldier from World War I, owned the property until the 1955-6. In the same year, on the site of ‘Rostrevor’, a house was built to the design of architect Robert Hamilton with its entrance from Linlithgow Road.
39 Hopetoun Road is an imposing Old English style residence. The fall of the land has enabled this two storey house to have a low level entry driveway and a garage beneath the ground floor. This has provided a dramatic emphasis to the massing of this building in combination with the steeply pitched terracotta shingle roof and tall chimneys. The roof consists of several ancillary hips to the dominant principal hip as well as an octagonal turret (which presumably serves as a stairwell). The entrance is adjacent, and features an unusual arched porch, the curvature of the arch reflected in the curved terra cotta shingle roof above. The light coloured clinker brickwork is relieved by a section of half timbering. The garden is enhanced by the terracing, the mature trees and general landscape character.
The house and landscape is apparently intact. The house appears to retain its original garage doors, brick driveway and rustic stone fencing.
The English style makes a dramatic contrast with Cedric Ballantyne’s normal preoccupation with the Spanish Revival idiom for residential architecture at this period.
Statement of Significance
39 Hopetoun Road is of regional significance as one of the most impressive English style residences in Toorak. It provides a strong testament to the skills of noted interwar architect, Cedric Ballantyne. The attention to details and materials of both house and landscaping provide an impressive character to this property.
232 Kooyong Road, Toorak (1935)
The house at 232 Kooyong Road is a substantial double-storey Spanish Mission revival style house, which is built on a sloping site so that it essentially presents as a single-storey building to the street.
Wildfell, 614 Toorak Road, Toorak (1920)
Ornately detailed and vastly proportioned throughout, the home comprises 5 bedrooms plus study and several entertaining and formal living rooms all surrounded by beautiful established gardens.
622 Toorak Road (Entrance Macquarie Road) Toorak, (for J. Smith, 1926)
Substantial 1920’s Spanish Mission style family home set on almost half an acre of established grounds amongst some of Toorak’s finest properties offering 4-5 bedroom accommodation with 200′ (61.10m) frontage to Macquarie Road.
Entrance patio, grand entry foyer leading to formal sitting room and separate dining room with sunroom overlooking Northern garden and in ground pool, large den or home office and kitchen with generous meals area. Upstairs comprises grand master bedroom with walk in robes and substantial Northern views, 4 additional bedrooms and 2 bathrooms.
Commercial Buildings of Cedric Ballantyne and partners
1901-1917 Melbourne Wool Stores
Younghusband Pty. Ltd. Wool and grain warehouses, 2 -50 Elizabeth Street, Kensington
Graeme Butler has noted that architects Oakden & Ballantyne did work on the complex in 1906 and on the basis of this has speculated that the partnership may have been responsible for the design of Wool Store No.1 in c. 1901.
1910 The Former New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Company Ltd Building
The walls are red brick, sitting on a granite plinth, with render around the windows and sandstone ashlar blocks at the bottom part of the wall and in some areas around the windows.
The building’s prominent corner site is accentuated by a heavy corner tower with oriel windows. The windows of the ground and first floor are slightly recessed within extended arches featuring stone voussoirs, while balconettes separate the third and fourth floors.
The Building is of architectural significance for its unusual and eclectic style which is symbolic of a transitional time in Victorian architecture.
1927 Victoria Golf Clubhouse
The Victoria Golf Club was established in 1903 and is one of Melbourne’s oldest golfing establishments.
Ballantyne’s Theatre designs
Cedric Ballantyne, as an architect, did not seem to require another architect to design his theatres although the Regent and Plaza Theatres in Melbourne are as opulent as any US example.
National Theatre (Victory Theatre) St Kilda (1921)
The National Theatre, St Kilda opened in April 1921 as a cinema, the Victory Theatre, described at the time as the second biggest cinema in Melbourne with a capacity for an audience of 3000.
The original design by architect Cecil Keeley included a crush hall and roof gardens.
By the late 1920s it was owned by a consortium that included film entrepreneur Frank W. Thring who became the managing director of Hoyts and later set up his own company Efftee Films.
The theatre directors commissioned extensive alterations in 1928 to designs by the architect Cedric H. Ballantyne. The works reduced the seating capacity to 2550 and made the cinema more luxurious to compete with the newly built Palais Theatre, also in St Kilda.
The works included a new proscenium arch, grand entrance foyer with panelled walls and mosaic tiled floor, upper lounge and a barrel vaulted mezzanine promenade. A central marble staircase, using Australian marble, replaced the original two side staircases. Downstairs the original plan included six small shops but two shops made way for more foyer space in the 1928 alterations. The form of the shopfronts remains.
Winter Garden Theatre (1924)
Located adjacent to His Majesty’s Theatre. The Winter Garden Theatre was opened on 1st August 1924 with Rin Tin Tin in “WheSociety)re the North Begins”.
The Winter Garden Theatre was closed in December 1973 and the foyer was converted into retail use, and later a bank.
Regent Picture Theatre, Ballarat (1927)
The Regent Theatre was commissioned by Ballarat Theatre Limited, a subsidiary of a national company, Hoyts Theatres Limited. This company owned and operated several theatres in Ballarat, including Her Majesty’s, the Brittania and the Plaza Theatre, at this time.
Designed to seat approximately 1950 people, the Regent Theatre was large even by metropolitan standards.
The theatre was originally designed by Melbourne architects Arthur W. Purnell and Cedric H. Ballantyne, the latter being the architect responsible for the Regent Theatre, Collins Street, Melbourne in 1929.
The interior of the Regent Theatre, Ballarat was significantly damaged by fire in 1943 and architects Cowper, Murphy and Appleford were commissioned to re-design the theatre building.
Hoyts Regent Theatre, George Street Sydney (1928)
Designed by the distinguished architect Cedric H. Ballantyne of the firm Ballantyne & Hare, it was built by James Porter & Sons.
Text from ‘Lost Sydney’:
There had been a theatre planned on this corner site from about 1914 with many architects having an interest in the plans. The site was owned by J.C.Williamson, Australia’s leading theatrical producer who already had other Sydney live theatres and weren’t particularly interested in building another. This is why the planning went on so long and passed through so many hands, most notably architect Henry White.
The facade in George Street was Italianate in style and decoration. Monumental pillars and pediments soaring above a glittering bronze and glass marquee.
“This was a fantastic building with a wonderful interior. The roof was removed in the eighties, thus allowing the interior to deteriorate to the point that demolition was allowed. The lot then sat empty for over 20 years. ”
Regent Theatre, Rundle Mall Adelaide (1928)
The most opulent theatre on Rundle Street was the Regent Theatre, built in 1927-1928 to the design of architects Cedric, Ballantyne & Associates of Melbourne and English, Soward & Jackson of Adelaide. The elaborate plasterwork was done by Hopkins Pty. Ltd.
Described as ‘Australia’s most luxurious theatre’ and a ‘palace of art’ when it opened on 29 June 1928, the Regent’s lavish interior featured seats for 2,298 patrons, marble stairs, portraits, tapestries and a sculpture.
One of the most glamorous and beautiful of Australian picture palaces was The Regent Theatre, located on Rundle Street.
It was the third Regent Theatre in the Hoyts Theatres chain to open, after Perth and Sydney. It was also one of the first public buildings in Adelaide to be air-conditioned.
In December 1953, the first CinemaScope film “The Robe” opened for an eight week run. In late-1959
Regent Theatre Collins Street Melbourne (1929)
The Regent Theatre was designed by Cedric Ballantyne and built by James Porter & Sons, and opened in 1929.
Ballantyne combined Spanish Gothic and French Renaissance styles to produce one of Victoria’s largest and most lavish cinemas in the inter-war period.
The auditorium, surmounted by a domed ceiling and flanked by colonnades, provides a handsome spectacle in which, because of careful detail, the large scale of the enclosed space is not immediately apparent.
The foyers and promenades are decorated in exaggerated styles, reflecting the ostentatious nature and romanticism of the cinema industry at that time, although they combine to enhance the splendour of the auditorium.
Ballantyne’s Fire Stations
The design of fire station buildings also changed significantly after the 1920s.
Ivanhoe Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station
The Former Hawthorn Fire Station (1910)
The Hawthorn Fire Station was constructed in 1910 to the design of Cedric Ballantyne of the architectural firm of Oakden and Ballantyne.
The Hawthorn Fire Station is architecturally important as a particularly successful adaptation of the Edwardian Freestyle to a domestically scaled suburban fire station.
Former Preston Metropolitan Fire Brigade (1912)
The former Metropolitan Fire Brigade station at Preston, designed by Cedric Ballantyne and constructed by 1912 is significant.
Old Sunshine Fire Station (1920s)
Sunshine Metropolitan Fire Station and flats complex is significant to the City of Brimbank as one of the more ornate and well-preserved public buildings in the City.
The complex relates to the Hampshire Road 1920s offices of H.V. McKay, and the demolished Sunshine Post Office.
Along with these and other public and commercial buildings in Sunshine’s centre, the Fire Station represents the dramatic period of growth and development, in both industrial and residential areas in what was then an outer satellite suburb.
The Georgian revival style gives the building some distinction among the generally unembellished industrial and residential properties around it.
Coburg Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station (former) (1925)
The former Coburg Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station located at 725 Sydney Road, Coburg is of local historic and aesthetic significance to the City of Moreland.
Of historic significance, for its role housing the Coburg Fire Brigade (which was already in existence) from its construction in 1925 to its closure in 1992. (AHC Criterion A.4)
Of aesthetic significance as a typical example of inter-war civic architecture, and good example of the work of the Brigade’s long serving architect Cedric Ballantyne. (AHC Criterion E.1)
Former No 3 Carlton Fire Station (1928)
Fire Station No 3 was designed by Cedric Haese Ballantyne and built 1927-29 in a late Edwardian Baroque manner. It is still functioning, its
accommodation occupied, is in very good condition and is remarkably intact and unaltered.
Other than Eastern Hill, it is probably the largest Metropolitan Fire Brigade (MFB) Station.
It has state historical significance as the representative embodiment of the inimitable work practices and way of life of the MFB and particularly of the period 1928-50.
It has state level architectural significance as a characteristic and largest work of the prolific designer of MFB fire stations, C H Ballantyne (1876-1957) and an excellent representative example of this important building type.
File Note: Converted to apartments 2000,
Ascot Vale Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station and Residence (1927)
The Metropolitan Fire Brigade station complex at 258-260 Union Road, Moonee Ponds, was built in 1927.
It is aesthetically important. This importance (Criterion E) is derived from the design of the station building in the comparatively unusual Neo Georgian style and, although understated, remains stylistically unusual in the Municipality.
The Essendon North Fire Station (1930)
The Essendon North Fire Station was constructed by W.O. Longmuir & Son in 1930 to the design of Cedric H. BalIantyne. Ballantyne had extensive experience in the design of suburban fire stations, firstly, as a draughtsman for Oakden & Kemp, next, as a partner of Oakden and finally, as a sole practitioner.
The building is architecturally significant as a remarkably intact example of a fire station built in the English Domestic Revival idiom (Criterion E). The intact engine room doors are particularly noteworthy, since many suburban fire stations have been altered to accommodate the larger dimensioned fire trucks now used. The domestic aesthetic of the building reflects MFB policy of the early twentieth century, which sought to provide more commodious accommodation for employees and their families and encourage a sense of the fire brigade as a family friendly organisation.
Moonee Valley City
The Regent Theatre was commissioned by Ballarat Theatre Limited, a subsidiary of a national company, Hoyts Theatres Limited. This company owned and operated several theatres in Ballarat, including Her Majesty’s, the Brittania and the Plaza Theatre, at this time. Designed to seat approximately 1950 people, the Regent Theatre was large even by metropolitan standards.The theatre was originally designed by Melbourne architects Arthur W. Purnell and Cedric H. Ballantyne, the latter being the architect responsible for the Regent Theatre, Collins Street, Melbourne in 1929. The interior of the Regent Theatre, Ballarat was significantly damaged by fire in 1943 and architects Cowper, Murphy and Appleford were commissioned to re-design the theatre building. This firm was also responsible for the rebuilding of the main auditorium of the Regent Theatre, Melbourne after a similar fire in 1945.The Free Classical style was adopted for the original theatre design.REGENT PICTURE THEATRE